El rey Taita y su “Palistin”: ¿estado filisteo o reino neo-hitita?

Jeffrey P. Emanuel

Resumen


El final del imperio hitita y la destrucción y abandono de Alalak representan una ruptura cultural entre la Edad del Bronce Tardío y la Edad del Hierro Temprana en el valle del ‘Amuq. En la Edad del Hierro I, una población con nexos claros con el mundo del Egeo, quizás relacionada con los filisteos del sur de Canaán, estableció un asentamiento agro-pastoral en Tell Ta‘yinat y el área circundante. Esta ocupación, marcada por las fases 6–3 en Ta‘yinat, fue material y cronológicamente efímera, y debería ser vista como una fase cultural atípica ubicada entre la etapa de la Edad del Bronce Tardío controlada por los hititas y más tarde la Edad del Hierro I. Esta población intrusiva vivió junto a los habitantes nativos del ‘Amuq, y legó a la región un topónimo—Palistin—que sobrevivió más allá de la relevancia y visibilidad arqueológica de este grupo. En el primer período de construcción en Tell Ta‘yinat, que siguió a las fases relacionadas con el Egeo, el sitio albergó a una dinastía que dirigía un típico estado neo-hitita, y su topónimo fue lo único que quedó de la presencia de los”Pueblos del mar”’ que lo ocuparon a comienzos de la Edad del Hierro. 

Palabras clave


Pueblos del mar; Neo-hitita; Palistin; Filisteos

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


ARO, S. 2003. “Art and Architecture”. In: H.C. MELCHERT (ed.), The Luwians. Handbook of Oriental Studies 68. Leiden, Brill.

ARTZY, M. 2013. “On the Other ‘Sea Peoples’”. In: A.E. KILLEBREW and G. LEHMANN (eds.), The Philistines and Other Sea Peoples in Text and Archaeology. Atlanta, Scholars Press, pp. 329–344.

BADRE, L. 2006. “Tell Kazel-Simyra: A Contribution to a Relative Chronological History in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Late Bronze Age”. In: Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 343, pp. 65–95.

BAITUK, S., T.P. HARRISON, and L. PAVLISH. 2005. “The Ta‘yinat Survey, 1999–2002”. In: K.A. YENER (ed.), ‘Amuq Valley Regional Projects I: Surveys in the Plain of Antioch and Orontes Delta, Turkey, 1995–2002. Oriental Institute Publications 131. Chicago, Oriental Institute, pp. 171–192.

BAITUK, S. and M. HOROWITZ. 2010. “Temple Deep Sounding Investigations 2001–2006”. In: K.A. YENER (ed.), Tell Atchana, Ancient Alalakh I: The 2003–2004 Excavation Seasons. Istanbul, Graphis Matbaa, pp. 161–176.

BARAKO, T. 2000. “The Philistine Settlement as Mercantile Phenomenon?”. In: American Journal of Archaeology 104(4), pp. 513–530.

BECKMAN, G.M. 1992. “Hittite Administration in Syria in the Light of the Texts from Khattusha, Ugarit and Emar”. In: Bibliotheca Mesopotamica 25, pp. 41–49.

BECKMAN, G.M., T. BRYCE, and E.H. CLINE. 2012. The Aḫḫiyawa Texts. Writings from the Ancient World 28. Atlanta, Scholars Press.

BEN-DOR EVIAN, S. 2012. “Egypt and Philistia in the Iron Age I: The Case of the Philistine Lotus Flower”. In: Tel Aviv 39, pp. 20–37.

BEN-SHLOMO, D. 2010. Philistine Iconography: A Wealth of Style and Symbolism. Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 241. Fribourg, Fribourg Academic Press.

BEN-SHLOMO, D. 2011. “Early Iron Age Domestic Material Culture in Philistia and an Eastern Mediterranean Koiné”. In: A. YASUR-LANDAU, J.R. EBELING and L.B.

MAZOW (eds.), Household Archaeology in Ancient Israel and Beyond. Culture and History of the Ancient Near East 50. Leiden, Brill, pp. 183–206.

BEN-SHLOMO, D. and T. DOTHAN. 2006. “Ivories from Philistia: Filling the Iron Age I Gap”. In: Israel Exploration Journal 56, pp. 1–38.

BIKAI, P.M. 1992. “The Phoenicians”. In: W.A. WARD and M.S. JOUKOWSKY (eds.), The Crisis Years: The 12th Century B.C. from Beyond the Danube to the Tigris. Dubuque, Kendall/Hunt, pp. 132–141.

BIRNEY, K.J. 2007. Sea Peoples or Syrian Peddlers? The Late Bronze-Iron I Aegean Presence in Syria and Cilicia. PhD Dissertation, Harvard University.

BIRNEY, K.J. 2008. “Tracking the Cooking Pot à la Stéatite: Signs of Cyprus in Iron Age Syria”. In: American Journal of Archaeology 112.4, pp. 565–580.

BONATZ, D. 2014. “Art”. In: H. NIEHR (ed.), The Aramaeans in Ancient Syria. Leiden, Brill, pp. 205–254.

BRUUN-LUNDGREN, M. 2011. “Industrial Activities, Personal Adornments and Belongings”. In: E. HALLAGER and B.P. HALLAGER (eds.), The Greek-Swedish Excavations at the Agia Aikaterini Square Kastelli, Khania 1970–1987. Stockholm, Jonsered, pp. 381–393.

BRYCE, T.R. 2005. The Kingdom of the Hittites. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

BRYCE, T.R. 2012. The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

BUNNENS, G. 2006. A New Luwian Stele and the Cult of the Storm-God at Til Barsip-Masuwari. Leuven, Peeters.

ÇAMBEL, H. and A. ÖZYAR. 2003. Karatepe-Aslantaş: Azatiwataya: Die Bildwerke. Mainz, Verlag Philipp von Zabern.

CASANA, J.J. 2007. “Structural Transformations in Settlement Systems of the Northern Levant”. In: American Journal of Archaeology 111(2), pp. 195–221.

CASANA, J.J. and T.J. WILKINSON. 2005. “Settlement and Landscapes in the ‘Amuq Region”. In: K.A. YENER (ed.), The ‘Amuq Valley Regional Projects I: Surveys in the Plain of Antioch and Orontes Delta, Turkey, 1995–2002. Oriental Institute Publications 131. Chicago, Oriental Institute.

CECCHINI, S.M. 2000. “The Textile Industry in Northern Syria During the Iron Age According to the Evidence of the Tell Afis Excavations”. In: G. BUNNENS (ed.), Essays on Syria in the Iron Age. Ancient Near Eastern Studies Supplements 7. Leuven, Peeters, pp. 211–233.

CECCHINI, S.M. 2011. “Loomweights and the Textile Industry in North Syria in the Early Iron Age”. In: V. KARAGEORGHIS and O. KOUKA (eds.), On Cooking Pots, Drinking Cups, Loomweights, and Ethnicity in Bronze Age Cyprus and Neighboring Regions. Nicosia, A.G. Leventis Foundation, pp. 195–202.

CROUWEL, J.H. 1991. The Mycenaean Pictorial Pottery. Well Built Mycenae 21. Oxford, Oxbow.

DALLEY, S. 2000. “Shamshi-ilu, Language and Power in the Western Assyrian Empire”. In: G. BUNNENS (ed.), Essays on Syria in the Iron Age. Ancient Near East Studies Supplements 7. Leuven, Peeters, pp. 79–88.

DOTHAN, T. 1998. “Initial Philistine Settlement: From Migration to Coexistence”. In: S. GITIN, A. MAZAR and E. STERN (eds.), Mediterranean Peoples in Transition: Thirteenth to Early Tenth Centuries BCE. Jerusalem, Israel Exploration Society, pp. 148–161.

DOTHAN, T. 2000. “Reflections on the Initial Phase of Philistine Settlement”. In: E.D. OREN (ed.), The Sea Peoples and Their World: A Reassessment. University Museum Monographs 108. Philadelphia, University Museum, pp. 145–158.

EMANUEL, J.P. 2012. “Cretan Lie and Historical Truth: Examining Odysseus’ Raid on Egypt in its Late Bronze Age Context”. In: V. BERS, D. ELMER, D. FRAME and L. MUELLNER (eds.), Donum Natalicium Digitaliter Confectum Gregorio Nagy Septuagenario a Discipulis Collegis Familiaribus Oblatum. Washington, DC, Center for Hellenic Studies, pp. 1–41.

EMANUEL, J.P. 2014. “Sea Peoples, Egypt, and the Aegean: The Transference of Maritime Technology in the Late Bronze-Early Iron Transition (LH IIIB-C)”. In: Aegean Studies 1, pp. 21–56.

EMANUEL, J.P. 2015. “The Late Bronze-Early Iron Age Transition: Changes in Warriors and Warfare and the Earliest Recorded Naval Battles”. In: G. LEE, H. WHITTAKER, and G. WRIGHTSON (eds.), Ancient Warfare: Introducing Current Research. Cambridge, Cambridge Scholars Press, pp. 191–209.

EPIGRAPHIC SURVEY. 1930. Medinet Habu I: The Earlier Historical Records of Ramesses III. Oriental Institute Publications 8. Chicago, Oriental Institute.

EVELY, D. 2006. “The Small Finds”. In: D. EVELY (ed.), Lefkandi IV: The Bronze Age: The Late Helladic IIIC Settlement at Xeropolis. BSA Supplements 39. London, British School at Athens, pp. 265–302.

FINKELBERG, M. 1988. “From Ahhiyawa to Ἀχαιοι”. In: Glotta 66, pp. 127–134. GALIL, G. 2013. “David, King of Israel, Between the Aramaeans and the Northern and Southern Sea Peoples in Light of New Epigraphic and Archaeological Data”. In: Ugarit-Forschungen 44, pp. 159–174.

GALIL, G. 2014. “A Concise History of Palistin/Patin/Unqi/‘mq in the 11th–9th Centuries BC”. In: Semitica 56, pp. 75–104.

GATES, M.-H. 2010. “Potters and Consumers in Cilicia and the ‘Amuq During the ‘Age of Transformations’ (13th–10th Centuries BC)”. In: F. VENTURI (ed.), Societies in Transition: Evolutionary Processes in the Northern Levant between the Late Bronze Age II and Early Iron Age. Studi e Testi Orientali 9. Bologna, CLUEB, pp. 65–81.

GATES, M.-H. 2013. “Early Iron Age Newcomers at Kinet Höyük, Eastern Cilicia”. In: A.E. KILLEBREW and G. LEHMANN (eds.), The Philistines and Other Sea Peoples in Text and Archaeology. Atlanta, Scholars Press, pp. 485–508.

GILBOA, A. 2006–7. “Fragmenting the Sea Peoples, with an Emphasis on Cyprus, Syria and Egypt: A Tel Dor Perspective”. In: T.P. HARRISON (ed.), Cyprus, the Sea Peoples and the Eastern Mediterranean: Regional Perspectives of Continuity and Change. Scripta Mediterranea 27–28. Toronto, Canadian Institute for Mediterranean Studies, pp. 209–244.

GOLDMAN, H. 1956. Excavations at Gözlü Kule, Tarsus II: From the Neolithic through the Bronze Age. Princeton, Princeton University.

GONNELLA, J., W. KHAYYATA, and K. KOHLMEYER. 2005. Die Zitadelle von Aleppo und der Tempel des Wettergottes: Neue Forschungen und Entdeckungen. Münster, Rhema.

GÜTERBOCK, H.G. 1992. “Survival of the Hittite Dynasty”. In: W.A. WARD and M.S. JOUKOWSKY (eds.), The Crisis Years: The 12th Century B.C. from Beyond the Danube to the Tigris. Dubuque, Kendall/Hunt, pp. 53–55.

HARRISON, T.P. 2001a. “Tell Ta’yinat and the Kingdom of Unqi”. In: P.M.M. DAVIAU, J.W. WEVERS and M. WEIGL (eds.), The World of the Aramaeans II: Studies in History and Archaeology in Honour of Paul-Eugéne Dion. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement 325. Sheffield, Sheffield Academic Press, pp. 115–132.

HARRISON, T.P. 2001b. “The Evidence for Aramaean Cultural Expansion in the ‘Amuq Plain”. In: M. FORTIN (ed.), Recherches Canadiennes sur la Syrie Antique. Toronto, Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies, pp. 135–144.

HARRISON, T.P. 2009a. “Neo-Hittites in the ‘Land of Palistin’: Renewed Investigations at Tell Ta‘yinat on the Plain of Antioch”. In: Near Eastern Archaeology 72(4), pp. 174–189.

HARRISON, T.P. 2009b. “Lifting the Veil on a ‘Dark Age’: Ta‘yinat and the North Orontes Valley during the Early Iron Age”. In: J.D. SCHLOEN (ed.), Exploring the Longue Durée: Essays in Honor of Lawrence E. Stager. Winona Lake, Eisenbrauns, pp. 171–184.

HARRISON, T.P. 2010. “The Late Bronze/Early Iron Age Transition in the North Orontes Valley”. In: F. VENTURI (ed.), Societies in Transition: Evolutionary Processes in the Northern Levant between the Late Bronze Age II and Early Iron Age. Studi e Testi Orientali 9. Bologna, CLUEB, pp. 83–102.

HAWKINS, J.D. 1988. “Kuzi-Tešub and the ‘Great Kings’ of Karkamiš”. In: Anatolian Studies 38, pp. 99–108.

HAWKINS, J.D. 2000. Corpus of Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions I: Inscriptions of the Iron Age. Studies in Indo-European Language and Culture 8. Berlin, De Gruyter.

HAWKINS, J.D. 2002. “Anatolia: The End of the Hittite Empire and After”. In: E.A. BRAUN-HOLZINGER and H. HATTHÄUS (eds.), Die Nahöstlichen und Griechenland an der Wende vom 2. Zum. 1. Jahrtausend v. Chr. Kontinuität und Wandel von Strukturen und Mechanismen Kultureller Interaktion. Möhnesee, Bibliopolis, pp. 144–151.

HAWKINS, J.D. 2003. “The Storm-God Seal of Muršili III”. In: G.M. BECKMAN, R.H. BEAL and J.G. MCMAHON (eds.), Hittite Studies in Honor of Harry A. Hoffner, Jr. Winona Lake, Eisenbrauns, pp. 169–175.

HAWKINS, J.D. 2009. “Cilicia, the ‘Amuq, and Aleppo: New Light in a Dark Age”. In: Near Eastern Archaeology 72(4), pp. 164–173.

HAWKINS, J.D. 2010. “The usage of the Hieroglyphic Luwian sign ‘Crampon’ (L.386)”. In: Kadmos 49, pp. 1–10.

HAWKINS, J.D. 2011. “The Inscriptions of the Aleppo Temple”. In: Anatolian Studies 61, pp. 35–54.

HUTTER, M. 2013. “Exkurs: Philister und Anatolien”. In: Biblische Notizen 156, pp. 53–64.

IACOVOU, M. 1994. “The Topography of Eleventh Century B.C. Cyprus”. In: V. KARAGEORGHIS (ed.), Cyprus in the 11th Century B.C. Nicosia, Leventis Foundation, pp. 149–164.

JANEWAY, B. 2006–7. “The Nature and Extent of Aegean Contact at Tell Ta’yinat and Vicinity in the Early Iron Age: Evidence of the Sea Peoples?”. In: T.P. HARRISON (ed.), Cyprus, the Sea Peoples and the Eastern Mediterranean: Regional Perspectives of Continuity and Change. Scripta Mediterranea 27–28. Toronto, Canadian Institute for Mediterranean Studies, pp. 123–146.

JANEWAY, B. 2014. Cultural Transition in the Northern Levant during the Early Iron Age as Reflected in the Aegean-Style Pottery at Tell Ta’yinat. PhD dissertation, University of Toronto.

JASINK, A.M. and M. MARINO. 2007. “The West-Anatolian Origins of the Que Kingdom Dynasty”. In: Studi Micenei ed Egeo-Anatolici 49, pp. 407–426.

JUNG, R. 2007. “Tel Kazel and the Mycenaean Contacts with Amurru (Syria)”. In: M. BIETAK and E. CZERNY (eds.), The Synchronisation of Civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Second Millennium B.C. III. Vienna, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, pp. 551–570.

KAHN, D. 2011. “The Campaign of Ramesses III Against Philistia”. In: Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections 3(4), pp. 1–11.

KARAGEORGHIS, V. 1992. “The Crisis Years: Cyprus”. In: W.A. WARD and M.S. JOUKOWSKY (eds.), The Crisis Years: The 12th Century B.C. from Beyond the Danube to the Tigris. Dubuque, Kendall/Hunt, pp. 79–86.

KARAGEORGHIS, V. 2001. “Patterns of Fortified Settlements in the Aegean and Cyprus c. 1200 B.C.”. In: V. KARAGEORGHIS and C.E. MORRIS (eds.), Defensive Settlements of the Aegean and the Eastern Mediterranean After c. 1200 B.C. Nicosia, Anastasios G. Leventis Foundation, pp. 1–12.

KARAGEORGHIS, V. and M. DEMAS. 1988. Excavations at Maa-Palaeokastro 1979–1986. Nicosia,Leventis Foundation.

KARAGEORGHIS, V. and O. KOUKA (eds.). 2011. On Cooking Pots, Drinking Cups, Loomweights and Ethnicity in Bronze Age Cyprus and Neighbouring Regions. Nicosia, Leventis Foundation.

KILLEBREW, A.E. 1998. “Ceramic Typology of the Bronze II and Iron I Assemblage from Tel Miqne-Ekron: The Transition from Canaanite to Philistine Culture”. In: S. GITIN, A. MAZAR and E. STERN (eds.), Mediterranean Peoples in Transition: Thirteenth to Early Tenth Centuries BCE. Jerusalem, Israel Exploration Society, pp. 379–405.

KILLEBREW, A.E. 2000. “Aegean-Style Early Philistine Pottery in Canaan During the Iron I Age: A Stylistic Analysis of Mycenaean IIIC:1b Pottery and Its Associated Wares”. In: E.D. OREN (ed.), The Sea Peoples and Their World: A Reassessment. University Museum Monographs 108. Philadelphia, University Museum, pp. 233–253.

KILLEBREW, A.E. 2005. Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity. Archaeology and Biblical Studies 9. Atlanta, Scholars Press.

KILLEBREW, A.E. 2013. “Early Philistine Pottery Technology at Tel Miqne-Ekron: Implications for the Late Bronze-Early Iron Age Transition in the Eastern Mediterranean”. In: A.E. KILLEBREW and G. LEHMANN (eds.), The Philistines and Other Sea Peoples in Text and Archaeology. Atlanta, Scholars Press, pp. 77–130.

KILLEBREW, A.E. and G. LEHMANN. 2013. “The World of the Philistines and Other ‘Sea Peoples’”. In: A.E. KILLEBREW and G. LEHMANN (eds.), The Philistines and Other Sea Peoples in Text and Archaeology. Atlanta, Scholars Press, pp. 1–18.

KOEHL, R.B. 2005. “Preliminary Observations on the Unpublished Mycenaean Pottery from Woolley’s Dig-House at Tell Atchana (Ancient Alalakh)”. In: R. LAFFINEUR and E. GRECO (eds.), Emporia: Aegeans in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean. Aegaeum 25. Liège, Université de Liège, pp. 415–422.

KOEHL, R.B. 2010. “Mycenaean Pottery”. In: K.A. YENER (ed.), Tell Atchana, Ancient Alalakh I: The 2003–2004 Excavation Seasons. Istanbul, Graphis Matbaa, pp. 81–84.

KOHLMEYER, K. 1983. “Felsbilder der Hethitischen Großreichszeit”. In: Acta Paehistorica et Archaeologica 15, pp. 7–154.

KOHLMEYER, K. 2000. Der Tempel des Wettergottes von Aleppo. Munster, Rhema-Verlag.

KOHLMEYER, K. 2008. “Zur Datierung der Skulpturen von ‘Ain Dārā”. In: D. BONATZ, R.M. CZICHON and F.J. KREPPNER (eds.), Fundstellen: Gesammelte Schriften zur Ärchäologie und Geschichte Altvorderasiens ad Honorem Hartmut Kühne. Weisbaden, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, pp. 119–130.

KOHLMEYER, K. 2009. “The Temple of the Storm God in Aleppo during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages”. In: Near Eastern Archaeology 72(4), pp. 190–202.

KOHLMEYER, K. 2011. “Building Activities and Architectural Decoration in the 11th Century BC. The Temples of Taita, King of Padasatini/Palistin in Aleppo and ‘Ain Dārā”. In: K. STROBEL (ed.), Empires after the Empire: Anatolia, Syria and Assyria after Suppiluliuma (ca.1200–800/700 B.C.). Eothen 17. Florence, LoGisma, pp. 255–280.

KOZAL, E. 2006. Anatolien im 2. Jt. V.u.Z. und die Hinterlassenschaften Materieller Kultur aus dem Ostmittelmeerraum, Insbesondere Zyperns. PhD Dissertation, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen.

KOZAL, E. 2010. “Cypriot Pottery”. In: K.A. YENER (ed.), Tell Atchana, Ancient Alalakh I: The 2003–2004 Excavation Seasons. Istanbul, Graphis Matbaa, pp. 67–80.

LASS, E.H.E. 1994. “Quantitative Studies in Flotation at Ashkelon, 1986 to 1988”. In: Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 294, pp. 23–38.

LEHMANN, G. 1998. “Trends in the Local Pottery Development of the Late Iron Age and Persian Period in Syria and Lebanon, ca. 700 to 300 B.C.”. In: Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 311, pp. 7–37.

LEHMANN, G. 2013. “Aegean-Style Pottery in Syria and Lebanon during Iron Age I”. In: A.E. KILLEBREW and G.

LEHMANN (eds.), The Philistines and Other Sea Peoples in Text and Archaeology. Atlanta, Scholars Press, pp. 265–328.

LIPOVITCH, D. 2006–7. “Modeling a Mycenaean Menu: Can Aegean Populations be Defined in Near Eastern Contexts Based on Their Diet?”. In: T.P. HARRISON (ed.), Cyprus, the Sea Peoples and the Eastern Mediterranean: Regional Perspectives of Continuity and Change. Scripta Mediterranea 27–28. Toronto, Canadian Institute for Mediterranean Studies, pp. 147–159.

LÓPEZ-RUIZ, C. 2009. “Mopsos and Cultural Exchange between Greeks and Locals in Cilicia”. In: U. DILL and CH. WALDE (eds.), Antike Mythen: Medien, Transformationen, Konstruktionen. Berlin, De Gruyter, pp. 382–396.

LUCKENBILL, D.D. 1926. Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia. Chicago, University Press.

MAEIR, A.M., L.A. HITCHCOCK, and L.K. HORWITZ. 2013. “On the Constitution and Transformation of Philistine Identity”. In: Oxford Journal of Archaeology 32, pp. 1–38.

MANNING, S.W. and L. HULIN. 2005. “Maritime Commerce and Geographies of Mobility in the Late Bronze Age of the Eastern Mediterranean: Problematizations”. In: E. BLAKE and A.B. KNAPP (eds.), The Archaeology of Mediterranean Prehistory. Malden, Blackwell, pp. 270–302.

MASETTI-ROUAULT, M.G. 2001. Cultures Locales du Moyen-Euphrate: Modéles et Événements (IIe-Ier Millénaire av. J.-C.). Turnhout, Brepols.

MATHEWS, D.M. 1990. Principles of Composition in Near Eastern Glyptic of the Later Second Millennium B.C. Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis Series Archaeologica 8. Fribourg, Universitätsverlag.

MAZZONI, S. 2000. “Pots, People and Cultural Borders in Syria”. In: L. MILANO, S. DE MARTINO, F.M. FALES and G.B. LANFRANCHI (eds.), Landscapes: Territories,Frontiers and Horizons in the Ancient Near East. History of the Ancient Near East 3. Padova, Sargon, pp. 139–152.

MORA, C. and L. D’ALFONSO. 2012. “Anatolia After the End of the Hittite Empire: New Evidence from Southern Cappadocia”. In: Origini 34, pp. 385–398.

MOUNTJOY, P.A. 2005. “The Mycenaean Pottery from the 1934–1939 Excavations at Tarsus”. In: A. OZYAR (ed.), Field Seasons 2001–2003 of the Tarsus-Gözlükule Interdisciplinary Research Project. Istanbul, Ege Yayinlari, pp. 83–134.

MOUNTJOY, P.A. 2007. “A Definition of LH III C Middle”. In: S. DEGER-JALKOTZY and M. ZAVADIL (eds.), LH III C Chronology and Synchronisms II: LH III C Middle. SCIEM 28. Vienna, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, pp. 221–242.

MOUNTJOY, P.A. 2010. “A Note on the Mixed Origins of Some Philistine Pottery”. In: Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 359, pp. 1–12.

MOUNTJOY, P.A. 2011. “A Bronze Age Ship from Ashkelon with Particular Reference to the Bronze Age Ship from Bademgediği Tepe”. In: American Journal of Archaeology 115/3, pp. 483–488.

MULLINS, R.A. 2010. “Comparative Analysis of the Alalakh 2003–2004 Season Pottery with Woolley’s Levels”. In: K.A. YENER (ed.), Tell Atchana, Ancient Alalakh I:The 2003–2004 Excavation Seasons. Istanbul, Graphis Matbaa, pp. 51–66.

NIEMEIER, W.-D. 1998. “The Mycenaeans in Western Anatolia and the Problem of the Origins of the Sea Peoples”. In: S. GITIN, A. MAZAR and E. STERN (eds.), Mediterranean Peoples in Transition: Thirteenth to Early Tenth Centuries BCE. Jerusalem, Israel Exploration Society, pp. 17–65.

ORESHKO, R. 2013. “The Achaean Hides, Caged in Yonder Beams: The Value of Hieroglyphic Lumina Sign *429 Reconsidered and a New Light on the Cilician Aḫḫiyawa”. In: Kadmos 52(1), pp. 19–33.

OSBORNE, J. F. 2011. Spatial Analysis and Political Authority in the Iron Age Kingdom of Patina, Turkey. PhD dissertation, Harvard University.

ÖTTINGER, N. 2008. “The Seer Mopsos (Muksas) as a Historical Figure”. In: B.J. COLLINS, M.R. BACHVAROVA and I. RUTHERFORD (eds.), Anatolian Interfaces: Hittites, Greeks, and Their Neighbors. Oxford, Oxbow, pp. 64–67.

ÖZGÜNEL, C. 1996. Mykenische Keramik in Anatolien. Asia Minor Studien 23. Bonn, Rudolf Habelt.

PONCHIA, S. 2011. “Patterns of Relationships in the Syro-Hittite Area”. In: K. STROBEL (ed.), Empires after the Empire: Anatolia, Syria and Assyria after Suppiluliuma (ca.1200–800/700 B.C.). Eothen 17. Florence, LoGisma, pp. 281–308.

PRUSS, A. 2002. “Ein Licht in der Nacht? Die ‘Amuq-Ebene Während der Dark Ages”. In: E.A. BRAUN-HOLZINGER and H. HATTHÄUS (eds.), Die Nahöstlichen und Griechenland an der Wende vom 2. Zum. 1. Jahrtausend v. Chr. Kontinuität und Wandel von Strukturen und Mechanismen Kultureller Interaktion. Möhnesee, Bibliopolis, pp. 161–176.

PUCCI, M. 2013. “Chatal Höyük in the ‘Amuq: Material Culture and Architecture during the Passage from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age”. In: K.A. YENER (ed.), Across the Border: Late Bronze-Iron Age Relations between Syria and Anatolia. Ancient Near Eastern Studies Supplement Series 42. Leuven, Peeters, pp. 89–112.

RAHMSTORF, L. 2003. “Clay Spools from Tiryns and Other Contemporary Sites: An Indication of Foreign Influence in LH IIIC?”. In: N. KYPARISSE-APOSTOLIKA and M. PAPAKONSTANTINOU (eds.), He Periphereia tou Mykenaikou Kosmou 2. Athens, Hypourgeio Politismou, pp. 397–415.

RAHMSTORF, L. 2005. “Ethnicity and Changes in Weaving Technology in Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean in the 12th Century B.C.”. In: V. KARAGEORGHIS, H. MATTHAUS and S. ROGGE (eds.), Cyprus: Religion and Society from the Late Bronze Age to the End of the Archaic Period. Münster, Bibliopolis, pp. 143–170.

SADER, H. 2014. “History”. In: H. NIEHR (ed.), The Aramaeans in Ancient Syria. Leiden, Brill, pp. 11–36.

SASS, B. 2002. “Wenamun and his Levant - 1075 BC or 925 BC?”. In: Egypt and Levant 12, pp. 247–255.

SASS, B. 2010a. “Taita, King of Palistin. 950–900 B.C.?”. In:

Dig-it-al NEA. http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/documents/sass-reply.pdf

SASS, B. 2010b. “Four Notes on Taita King of Palistin with an Excursus on King Solomon’s Empire”. In: Tel Aviv 37, pp. 169–174.

SHARON, I. and A. GILBOA. 2013. “Dor in the Early Iron Age”. In: A.E. KILLEBREW and G. LEHMANN (eds.), The Philistines and Other Sea Peoples in Text and Archaeology. Atlanta, Scholars Press, pp. 393–468.

SHERRATT, E.S. 1998. “Sea Peoples and the Economic Structure of the Late Second Millennium in the Eastern Mediterranean”. In: S. GITIN, A. MAZAR and E. STERN (eds.), Mediterranean Peoples in Transition: Thirteenth to Early Tenth Centuries BCE. Jerusalem, Israel Exploration Society, pp. 282–314.

SHERRATT, E.S. 2003. “The Mediterranean Economy: “Globalization’ at the End of the Second Millennium B.C.E.”. In: W.G. DEVER and S. GITIN (eds.), Symbiosis,Symbolism, and the Power of the Past: Canaan, Ancient Israel, and Their Neighbors from the Late Bronze Age Through Roman Palaestina. Winona Lake, Eisenbrauns, pp. 37–62.

SHERRATT, E.S. and J.H. CROUWEL. 1987. “Mycenaean Pottery from Cilicia in Oxford”. In: Oxford Journal of Archaeology 6(3), pp. 325–352.

SINGER, I. 1988. “A New Stele of Hamiyatas, King of Masuwari”. In: Tel Aviv 2, pp. 184–192.

SINGER, I. 1994. “Egyptians, Canaanites, and Philistines in the Period of the Emergence of Israel”. In: I. FINKELSTEIN and N. NA’AMAN (eds.), From Nomadism to Monarchy. Jerusalem, Israel Exploration Society, pp. 282–338.

SINGER, I. 2000. “New Evidence on the End of the Hittite Empire”. In: E.D. OREN (ed.), The Sea Peoples and Their World: A Reassessment. University Museum Monographs 108. Philadelphia, University Museum, pp. 21–34.

SINGER, I. 2012. “The Philistines in the North and the Kingdom of Taita”. In: G. GALIL, A. GILBOA, A.M. MAEIR and D. KAHN, The Ancient Near East in the 12th–10th Centuries B.C.E.: Culture and History. Altes Orient und Altes Testament 392. Münster, Ugarit-Verlag.

SINGER, I. 2013. “Old Country Ethnonyms in New Countries of the Sea Peoples Diaspora”. In: R.B. KOEHL (ed.), AMILLA: The Quest for Excellence: Studies in Honor of Günter Kopcke. Philadelphia, INSTAP, pp. 321–334.

STAGER, L.E. 1995. “The Impact of the Sea Peoples in Canaan 1185–1050 BCE”. In: T.E. LEVY (ed.), The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land. London, Facts on File, pp. 332–348.

STAGER, L.E. and P.A. MOUNTJOY. 2007. “A Pictorial Krater from Philistine Ashkelon”. In: S. WHITE CRAWFORD, A. BEN-TOR, J.P. DESSEL, W.G. DEVER, A.MAZAR and J. AVIRAM (eds.), Up to the Gates of Ekron: Essays on the Archaeology and History of the Eastern Mediterranean in Honor of Seymour

Gitin. Jerusalem, Israel Exploration Society, pp. 50–60.

STEITLER, C. 2010. “The Biblical King Toi of Hamath and the Late Hittite State ‘P/Walas(a)tin’”. In: Biblische Notizen 146, pp. 81–99.

STROBEL, K. 2011. “The Crucial 12th Century BC: The ‘Fall of Empires’ Revisited”. In: K. STROBEL (ed.), Empires after the Empire: Anatolia, Syria and Assyria after Suppiluliuma (ca.1200–800/700 B.C.). Eothen 17. Florence, LoGisma, pp. 167–254.

SWIFT, G.F. 1958. The Pottery of the ‘Amuq Phases K to O, and Its Historical Relationships. PhD Dissertation, University of Chicago.

TEKOĞLU, R. and A. LEMAIRE. 2000. “La Bilingue Royale Louvito-Phénicienne de Çineköy”. In: Comptes Rendus des Séances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 144(3), pp. 961–1007.

TSOUNTAS, CH. 1896. “Graptē Stēlē ek Mykēnōn”. In: Ephemeris Archaiologikē 4, pp. 1-22.

ÜNLÜ, E. 2005. “Locally Produced and Painted Late Bronze to Iron Age Transitional Period Pottery of Tarsus-Gözlükule”. In: A. ÖZYAR (ed.), Field Seasons 2001–2003 of the Tarsus-Gözlükule Interdisciplinary Research Project. Istanbul, Ege Yayınları, pp. 145–168.

VENTURI, F. 2011. “The North Syrian Plateau Before and After the Fall of the Hittite Empire: New Evidence from Tell Afis”. In: K. STROBEL (ed.), Empires after the Empire: Anatolia, Syria and Assyria after Suppiluliuma (ca.1200–800/700 B.C.). Eothen 17. Florence, LoGisma, pp. 139–166.

VENTURI, F. 2013. “The Transition from Late Bronze Age to Early Iron Age at Tell Afis, Syria phases VII–III”. In: K.A. YENER (ed.), Across the Border: Late Bronze-Iron Age Relations between Syria and Anatolia. Ancient Near Eastern Studies Supplement Series 42. Leuven, Peeters, pp. 227–262.

VERMEULE, E. and V. KARAGEORGHIS. 1982. Mycenaean Pictorial Vase Painting. Cambridge, Harvard University Press.

WEEDEN, M. 2013. “After the Hittites: The Kingdoms of Karkamish and Palistin in Northern Syria”. In: Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 56(2), pp. 1–20.

WELTON, L., S. BATIUK, and T. HARRISON. 2011. “Tayinat in the Late Third Millennium: Recent Investigations of the Tayinat Archaeological Project, 2008–2010”. In: Anatolica 37, pp. 147–185.

WILSON, J.A. 1974. “Egyptian Historical Texts”. In: J.B. PRITCHARD (ed.), Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. Princeton, Princeton University Press, pp. 227–263.

WOOLLEY, L. 1955. Alalakh: An Account of the Excavations at Tell Atchana in the Hatay, 1937–1949. Reports of the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London 18. London, Society of Antiquaries.

YAGER, R. 2005. “The Stratigraphy of Cyprus WS II and Mycenaean Cups in Soli Höyük Excavations”. In: H. FISCHER, H. GENZ, E. JEAN and K. KÖROGLU (eds.), Identifying Changes: The Transition from Bronze to Iron Ages in Anatolia and Its Neighbouring Regions. Istanbul, Türk Eskiçağ Bilimleri Enstitüsü Yayınları, pp.93–106.

YALCIN, S. 2013. “A Re-evaluation of the Late Bronze to Early Iron Age Transitional Period: Stratigraphic Sequence and Plain Ware of Tarsus-Gözlükule”. In: K.A. YENER (ed.), Across the Border: Late Bronze-Iron Age Relations between Syria and Anatolia. Ancient Near Eastern Studies Supplement Series 42. Leuven, Peeters, pp. 195–212.

YAMADA, S. 2000. The Construction of the Assyrian Empire: A Historical Study of the Inscriptions of Shalmaneser III (859–824 B.C.) Relating to His Campaigns to the West. Culture and History of the Ancient Near East 3. Leiden, Brill.

YASUR-LANDAU, A. 2003a. “Why Can’t We Find the Origin of the Philistines? In Search of the Source of a Peripheral Aegean Culture”. In: N. KYPARISSIAPOSTOLIKA and M. PAPAKONSTANTINOU (eds.), The Periphery of the Mycenaean World. Athens, Hypourgeio Politismou, pp. 587–598.

YASUR-LANDAU, A. 2003b. “The Absolute Chronology of the LHIIIC Period: A View from the Levant”. In: S. DEGER-JALKOTZY and M. ZAVADIL (eds.), LHIIIC Chronology and Synchronisms. Vienna, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, pp. 235–244.

YASUR-LANDAU, A. 2007. “Let’s Do the Time Warp Again: Migration Processes and the Absolute Chronology of the Philistine Settlement”. In: M. BIETAK and E. CZERNY (eds.), The Synchronization of Civilisations in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Second Millennium B.C. III. Vienna, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, pp. 609–620.

YASUR-LANDAU, A. 2010. The Philistines and the Aegean Migration at the End of the Late Bronze Age. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

YASUR-LANDAU, A. 2011. “Deep Change in Domestic Behavioural Patterns and Theoretical Aspects of Interregional Interactions in the 12th Century Levant”. In: V. KARAGEORGHIS and O. KOUKA (eds.), On Cooking Pots, Drinking Cups, Loomweights, and Ethnicity in Bronze Age Cyprus and Neighboring Regions. Nicosia, A.G. Leventis Foundation, pp. 245–255.

YASUR-LANDAU, A. 2012. “Chariots, Spears and Wagons: Anatolian and Aegean Elements in the Medinet Habu Land Battle Relief”. In: G. GALIL, A. MAEIR, A. GILBOA and D. KAHN (eds.), The Ancient Near East in the 12th–10th Centuries BCE: Culture and History. Alter Orient und Altes Testament 392. Münster, Ugarit-Verlag, pp. 27–40.

YENER, K.A. (ed.). 2010. Tell Atchana, Ancient Alalakh I: The 2003–2004 Excavation Seasons. Istanbul, Graphis Matbaa.

YENER, K.A. and G.B. YAZICIOĞLU. 2010. “Excavation Results”. In: K.A. YENER (ed.), Tell Atchana, Ancient Alalakh I: The 2003–2004 Excavation Seasons. Istanbul, Graphis Matbaa, pp. 11–50.

YENER, K.A., C. EDENS, T.P. HARRISON, J. VERSTRAETE, and T.J. WILKINSON. 2000. “The ‘Amuq Valley Regional Project, 1995–1998”. In: American Journal of Archaeology 104(2), pp. 163–220.

ZENONI, G. 2014. “From Western to Eastern Anatolia: Reconsidering the Aegean Presence in the Peripheries of the Hittite World”. In: N.CH. STAMPOLIDIS, C. MANER and K. COPANIAS (eds.), Nostoi: Indigenous Culture, Migration + Integration in the Aegean Islands + Western Anatolia During the Late Bronze + Early Iron Ages. Nicosia, A.G. Leventis Foundation, pp. 767–790.


Enlaces de Referencia

  • Por el momento, no existen enlaces de referencia


Añadir comentario

Licencia Creative Commons
Esta obra está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0 Internacional.