El origen y la evolución del símbolo del serafín

Nissim Amzallag

Resumen


La abundancia de iconografías de uraeus en la Edad del Bronce Tardío y en la Edad del Hierro en Canaán, llevó a la mayoría de los investigadores a interpretar el serafín, una serpiente con alas y/o ardiente evocada en la Biblia, como un símbolo egipcio tomado prestado por los cananeos y luego integrado en la tradición yahvista. Sin embargo, la fuerte afinidad del símbolo del serafín con las especies de serpientes locales, Echis coloratus, desafía esta visión. Se demuestra que el serafín era un símbolo nativo cananeo, cuyas representaciones fueron influenciadas posteriormente por la escultura egipcia. La comparación de la biología del Echis colorataus con las fuentes literarias relacionadas con el serafín, sugiere que este último aparecía como un animal que cuidaba las zonas mineras de cobre en la Arabá y en el Sinaí contra el acceso de personas no autorizadas. Por lo tanto, se convirtió en el símbolo privilegiado del hierro metalúrgico y de sus esferas cercanas de influencia. Se concluye que el vínculo esencial entre Yahvé y el serafín radicaría probablemente en las fuertes raíces metalúrgicas del dios de Israel. A la vez, la estrecha afinidad entre las propiedades de uraeus y el Echis coloratus, más que con las especies de cobra que simboliza, sugiere que el símbolo egipcio fue tomado prestado de Canaán ya en el periodo Pre- Dinástico, antes de influenciar a este, a la inversa, en la Edad del Bronce Tardío. 

Palabras clave


Serafín; Echis coloratus; Yahvismo primordial; Uraeus

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