Efectos heterogéneos del comercio internacional: ¿Qué nos enseña la literatura?

Andrés M. Cesar

Resumen


Este trabajo revisa gran parte de la literatura dedicada a estudiar los efectos del comercio internacional sobre el crecimiento económico, el mercado laboral, la distribución del ingreso y el bienestar. De esta revisión se desprende que la integración comercial promueve el crecimiento, principalmente a través de mejoras en la productividad agregada de la economía, a la vez que genera una transformación de la estructura productiva que acarrea ganadores y perdedores. Además, los mercados están sujetos a fricciones que ralentizan las transiciones y acentúan los efectos heterogéneos del comercio sobre firmas, industrias, regiones y, en definitiva, sobre el bienestar de distintos individuos. Estos efectos se agudizan en presencia de restricciones financieras, baja movilidad laboral y debilidad institucional. En este contexto, es fundamental comprender los mecanismos por los cuales el comercio internacional genera dichos efectos para mejorar el diseño de políticas costo-efectivas, que permitan suavizar el proceso de ajuste para trabajadores y regiones desplazadas en pos de compartir los beneficios del comercio entre todos los miembros de la sociedad.

Palabras clave


comercio internacional; productividad; mercado laboral; desigualdad; bienestar

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